While the causes of most lymphomas are unknown, risk factors associated with developing lymphoma have been identified. The following risk factors for NHL have been reported:5, 15
- immunodeficiency (post-transplantation immunosuppression; HIV/AIDS; congenital immune deficiency; acquired autoimmune disease).
- infectious organisms (Epstein Barr Virus; Helicobacter pylori for gastric lymphoma; Human T-lymphotrophic virus types I (HTLV-I); Human herpes virus- (HHV8) infection for primary effusion lymphoma).
- occupational exposures (to pesticides or herbicides; farming).
- medical and co-morbid factors (childhood appendectomy; skin cancer; diabetes; tuberculosis).
- lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking).
Systematic reviews have identified individual risk factors including wood preserving chemicals16 and hepatitis C.17
Access the following resources to respond to these learning activities:
Appraise the strength of evidence in relation to the listed risk factors for NHL:
- HIV/AIDS infection.
- Epstein-Barr virus.
- Hepatitis C.
- Cigarette smoking.
- Pentachlorophenol exposure.
Using an evidence based approach, discuss how you would support and advise an individual's relative who approached you seeking guidance in relation to their concerns of developing lymphoma after being diagnosed with hepatitis C.